Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Phytotoxicity of stem aqueous extract of Urtica dioica L. against Zea mays and Cassia sophera


Quratul-ain, Waseem Mushtaq, Mo Shadab, Uzma Parveen, M.B. Siddiqui

Recieved Date: 2023-01-17, Accepted Date: 2023-03-25


Allelopathy is actually the biological warfare among the plants, in which one plant releases chemical substances allelochemicals to inhibit the growth, and affect the various physiological and morphological characteristics of plants in its vicinity. The allelopathic donor plants dominate the area by affecting the survival of other plant species in their areas. Investigations were made on the allelopathic influence of Urtica dioica stem aqueous extracts on Zea mays and Cassia sophera. Stem aqueous extracts showed a significant decrease on morphological characters root length, shoot length and dry weight as well as on the total chlorophyll content. At low concentration (0.5%), the growth parameters were increased. On increasing the concentration of extract, all the growth parameters  decreased.  The total chlorophyll  content of both  the test plants was decreased on increasing the concentration of stem aqueous extract. Upon GCMS analysis of  ethanolic extract of stem, 47 volatile compounds were identified. The compounds found in the major concentrations were stigmast-5-en-3-ol, 3.beta; glycidyl palmitate; 1,8,11-heptadecatriene, z,z-; 9-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, e-; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid; hexadecanoic acid, ethyl ester; trans,trans-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, propyl ester; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, oleate; 9,12-octadecadienoicacid z,z-, methyl ester; ergost-5-en-3-ol, 3.beta., 24 r- . These compounds may be responsible for imparting allelopathic effect on test species Zea mays and Cassia sophera. Our study revealed that stem of U. dioica possess a high concentration of water-soluble allelochemicals, which are thought to have reduced test plants’ growth and can be utilized as potential weedicides.


Allelopathy, allelochemicals, GCMS, volatile compounds, chlorophyll content, ethanolic extract

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2023
Volume: 21
Issue: 2
Category: Environment
Pages: 142-147

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