Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Vol 11, Issue 2,2013
Online ISSN: 1459-0263
Print ISSN: 1459-0255

Possible risk factors in developing COPD in never smoked patients: Environmental exposures 


Milena Adina Man 1*, Cristian Oancea 2

Recieved Date: 2013-01-24, Accepted Date: 2013-04-21


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of all deaths. COPD arises from the interaction between environmental exposure and host factor. Tobacco smoke, occupational exposures, indoor and outdoor air pollution and passive smoking have to be considered as risk factors. We analyzed the possible risk factors in developing COPD in 100 patients who never smoked, with age over 40 years, admitted from an exacerbation in Leon Daniello Pneumology Hospital, Cluj Napoca, from January 2007 to December 2010. We evaluated gender, age, family history, co-morbidities, geographic distribution (rural/urban area), occupational exposure to dusts/gases/fumes, and exposure to biomass smoke for cooking or heating without good ventilation, passive smoking, the main symptoms and the GOLD stage of disease. From the total 100 nonsmoker patients included in the study, 60% were male, with mean age of 57.2 years, 64% were from urban area, majority with low income (87%). The possible risk factors were: passive smoking 20%, occupational exposures 26%, exposures to biomass smoke 18% and combination of risk factors 36%. The main symptoms described were dyspnea in 87 cases, cough in 83 cases, expectoration in 80 patients, weight loss in 21 cases and cyanosis in 6 cases. Patients’ stage of disease was predominantly moderate in 45% and severe in 30%. The combinations of risk factors may increase the probability of developing chronic disease, and the Romanian Governmental Program must sustain the environmental protection for improving human health and quality of life. 


Environmental exposure, COPD, indoor/outdoor pollution, risk factor

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2013
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
Category: Food and Health
Pages: 149-151

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