Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment




Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effect of pirimiphos-methyl 50% EC and acetamiprid 20% SP insecticides on mitotic chromosomes and DNA content of Allium sativum


Author(s):

Mona S. Al-Ahmadi

Recieved Date: 2016-05-24, Accepted Date: 2016-09-20

Abstract:

Pirimiphos-methyl 50% EC (Fast nock) molecular formula (C11H20N3O3PS) and acetamiprid 20% SP (Branchio X) molecular formula (C10H11ClN4) insecticides were used to investigate their cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Three different concentrations were freshly prepared (0.0125 %v, 0.025 %v, and 0.05 %v) for three different periods of time (8, 16, 24 hours). Different treatments of insecticides showed cytotoxic effects by the decrease of mitotic index of root tip cells of Allium sativum; the effect of pirimiphos-methyl 50% EC was insignificant at p≥0.05 and significant after treatment with acetamiprid 20% SP at p≤0,05. The treatments had genotoxic effects by the increase of chromosomal aberration frequency; the types of chromosomal aberrations that were scored during examination were sticky chromosomes, disturbance, bridges, fragments and micronuclei, and was  significant at (p≤0.05) after treatment with pirimiphos-methyl 50% EC, while treatment with  0.0125%v of acetamiprid 20% SP was significant at p≤0.05. Disturbance, irregular polar and such types of abnormalities indicate the effects of tested insecticides on  spindle apparatus responsible for chromosomes direction during mitotic phases; also anaphase bridge, micronuclei and fragments revealed the genotoxic effects of the tested insecticides on the structure of genetic material, leading to abnormal appearance. These effects were clear on DNA content caused by some concentrations of tested materials; it decreased the content of DNA compared with control, which indicates that tested insecticides interfere with the synthesis of DNA in the S-phase and cause decrease in DNA content.  The effects of different treatments on mitotic index, chromosomal frequency and DNA content suggest cytotoxic and genotoxic action.

Keywords:

Pirimiphos-methyl 50% EC, acetamiprid 20% SP, insecticides, mitotic chromosomes, chromosomal aberration, DNA content


Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2016
Volume: 14
Issue: 3&4
Category: Agriculture
Pages: 41-47


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