Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Vol 10, Issue 1,2012
Online ISSN: 1459-0263
Print ISSN: 1459-0255

Proximate composition and physicochemical and functional properties of Pistacia vera (L.)


Isiaka Adisa Amoo 1, Violette Nkechi Atasie 2*, Olanrewaju David Akinola1

Recieved Date: 2011-10-14, Accepted Date: 2012-01-05


Raw and boiled samples of Pistacia vera L. (pistachio) were analyzed for proximate composition, functional properties, mineral contents and anti- nutritional factors. Oil extracted from the seeds were evaluated for physicochemical properties: refractive index, specific gravity, iodine, peroxide, saponification  and acid values. Six samples were used for the analyses: raw dehusk (A1), raw whole (B1), raw husk (C1), boiled dehusk (A2), boiled whole (B2) and boiled husk (C2).We report here results of proximate composition (P<0.05): ash content of 3.30±0.03% in boiled husk and 6.08 ±0.02% in raw whole, moisture content of 3.20±0.05% in raw dehusk and 12.63±0.04% in boiled whole, crude protein of 23.63±0.02% in boiled husk and 32.12± 0.02% in boiled whole. The fat content was 7.71±0.02% in  boiled husk and 51.13±0.03% in boiled dehusk,  fiber 6.72±0.02% in boiled whole and 24.46±0.05% in the raw husk.  Carbohydrate  determined by difference was 7.05±0.03% in boiled whole and 32.13±0.07% in boiled husk. Physicochemical properties showed no significant difference in the refractive indices. Specific gravity (g/cm3) was 0.8903±0.002  in raw whole and 0.7975±0.002 in boiled dehusk, acid values  were 0.62±0.02 in boiled dehusk and 0.71±0.06 in  raw whole.  Iodine values were higher in the raw than boiled  samples. Peroxide value ranged from 2.60±0.05% in boiled dehusk to 7.20±0.10%  in raw dehusk. Values for saponification and free fatty acid were 1.07±0.02% and 3.41±0.02%. Water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were reduced by boiling. Emulsion stability did not vary in both raw and boiled samples while least gelation was highest in raw whole. Magnesium was the most abundant mineral in raw dehusk (44.66±0.02 mg/100 g), manganese was not detected in any sample, anti-nutritional factors showed tannic acid (from 0.80±0.05% to 2.73±0.03), saponin  (from 0.53±0.02% to 2.39±0.01%), alkaloids (from 3.00±0.01% to 28.00±0.70%), phytin phosphorus (from 2.02±0.02% to 1.39±0.03%)  and phytate and oxalate (10.71±0.01%, 3.42±0.03%) in both raw dehusk. Pictacia vera (L.) flour is a good source of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Water absorption capacity makes it vital as thickener in liquid and semi-liquid foods and serves culinary role in food processing, and the flour may be useful as a gelling agent in some food systems. The physicochemical properties of the oil showed the acid value fell within recommended edible oils, the iodine and peroxide makes the oil useful in soap making. The mineral analysis showed that the flour is rich in macro minerals which is good in food formulation, while the antinutritional properties, tannins, saponins, oxalate and alkaloids, were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by boiling, making the samples safe for human and animal consumption. 


Protein, nutritional value, saponification, iodine value, tannins

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2012
Volume: 10
Issue: 1
Category: Food and Health
Pages: 20-24

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