Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Vol 7, Issue 2,2009
Online ISSN: 1459-0263
Print ISSN: 1459-0255

Assessment of dermal bystander exposure in pesticide applications using different types of nozzles


Nigar Yarpuz-Bozdogan*, Ali Musa Bozdogan

Recieved Date: 2009-01-06, Accepted Date: 2009-04-18


In pesticide applications, pesticide deposition on off-target can be reduced by using appropriate nozzles. In this study, the effects of different types of nozzles were investigated pesticide deposition on bystander to malathion. The application rate of trials was 200 l ha-1. In the trials, the hollow cone nozzles (HC), the flat fan nozzles (F), and the low-drift flat fan nozzles (LD) were used. Malathion was applied as 0.570 kg a.i. per ha in the trials. The dermal bystander exposure was measured by using the whole body dosimetry technique. In the trials, the total body area of bystander overalls was approximately 2 m2. All chromatographic analysis was performed on gas chromatography with equipped a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Pesticide deposition found in each one of the body parts in F-nozzles was higher than LD and HC nozzles. The lowest pesticide deposition on bystander was found in LD nozzles. Totally, the lowest dermal deposition was obtained as 5.972 µg kg-1 in LD nozzles, and was found to be 1.27-1.88 orders of magnitude lower than in HC nozzles and F nozzles. It was shown that, in this study, the total bystander exposure can be reduced 21.3-46.8 % by using low drift nozzles in pesticide applications.


Hollow cone nozzle, flat fan nozzle, low-drift nozzle, pesticide, dermal bystander exposure, whole body dosimetry, drift, GC-NPD

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2009
Volume: 7
Issue: 2
Category: Environment
Pages: 678-682

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