Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

Vol 5, Issue 3&4,2007
Online ISSN: 1459-0263
Print ISSN: 1459-0255

Archaeo-historical environ of Cholistan and significance of ancient agriculture in Pakistan


Farooq Ahmad

Recieved Date: 2007-04-07, Accepted Date: 2007-08-21


The Hakra civilization, which flourished was one of the longest in the course of world history. Cholistan is the only place where the remnants of the oldest settlements are still intact because of the desertion of the river Hakra. Archaeological ruined remains present in Cholistan indicate that water availability in the area was higher centuries ago. The reduction of vegetation to about one third or less of its historical cover most probably results in considerably higher near surface and surface temperature. As a result, evaporation of the scarce rainfall has increased considerably during the last decades so reducing the effective rainfall available for range and groundwater recharge, which is well known as self-reinforcing aspect of desertification. The aridity in Cholistan is rightly seen as a major limitation to wide-scale range improvement and management programmes. Archaeobotanical evidences suggest that the nuclear area of Indus-Saraswati civilization was located around the Saraswati River. There was a westward movement of crops domesticated in India to Harappa and to sites in Kashmir and Balochistan during the early and mature phases of Indus-Saraswati civilization. High agricultural prosperity was witnessed during the mature phase when crop rotation was practiced. However, during the late phase, with the drying of the Saraswati River, agricultural communities moved eastwards to Ganga valley and southwards to Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.


Cholistan, Hakra civilization, Mehrgarh, Pakistan, Saraswati River

Journal: Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment
Year: 2007
Volume: 5
Issue: 3&4
Category: Environment
Pages: 392-398

Full text for Subscribers

Note to users

The requested document is freely available only to subscribers/registered users with an online subscription to the Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. If you have set up a personal subscription to this title please enter your user name and password. All abstracts are available for free.

Article purchasing

If you like to purchase this specific document such as article, review or this journal issue, contact us. Specify the title of the article or review, issue, number, volume and date of the publication. Software and compilation, Science & Technology, all rights reserved. Your use of this website details or service is governed by terms of use. Authors are invited to check from time to time news or information.

Purchase this Article:   20 Purchase PDF Order Reprints for 15

Share this article :