ISBN : 952-91-8601-0

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Crops: Growth, Quality and Biotechnology


Ramdane Dris PhD.

Category: Crop

The world today is characterized by an exponential growth in world population, industrialization, pollution, food production and depletion of our natural resources. If this trend continues unchanged, there is almost a unanimous consensus that the limits to growth on this planet will be reached sometime within the next one hundred years. The most probable result will be a rather a sudden and uncontrollable decline in both, population and industrial capacity. However, this doomsday scenario will materialize only if our present way of doing things will not change. Since there are ample evidence of mankind’s ingenuity and social flexibility, we can safely assume that it is possible to alter these growth trends and to establish a condition of ecological and economic stability that is sustainable far into the future. The introduction of new technologies hold the promise to raise the limits to growth. The challenge is enormous because the globalization process has introduced industrial agriculture, which many consider as a major factor that is responsible for devastating our land, water and air, which may lthreatens the sustainability of our biosphere. One of the characteristics of the present agriculture of the developed countries almost worldwide is the conversion from agrarian, local, fully integrated food systems to industrialized, monocultured agricultural production. While the roots of the industrial takeover can be discussed and evaluated, there is a wide consensus that this process has brought a number of negative effects. It manifests itself, among others, in contaminated soils and ground waters, polluted air, food-borne illness, toxic chemicals in foods, animal feed and fiber and myriad other environmental problems that effect, not only quality, but more important, food safety. Moreover, the industrialized food production has created a distance between the consumer and food production, resulting in consumers lining up in supermarkets and array of slickly food products about which they know very little. At the same time, consumers are becoming more involved in food marketing systems, demanding levels of safety assurance, purity and authenticity and even information on production or environmental practices. Food safety is only one of the factors (albeit a major one) that is associated with current agriculture. Sustainability is another factor that requires our attention. In the past 50 years the drive toward agricultural self-sufficiency has been propelled by advances in management practices that have relied upon the extensive clearance, drainage or irrigation of marginal land, coupled with the intensive use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. While the use of such management strategies have enabled crops to be grown on land where they might otherwise have failed, the conscription of such marginal land carries with it an environmental price. Chemical fertilizers have displaced farming systems that rely upon the ‘natural’ accumulation of soil nutrients through the activity of beneficial soil micro flora and micro fauna, while also having a tendency to increase soil acidity. Deep well irrigation systems have brought water to arid crop lands but at the cost of increasing soil salinity. Plant breeding systems have produced cultivars that are highly productive but increasingly dependent upon the supporting role of agrichemical applications and management systems that decrease biodiversity. Perhaps even more troubling, marginal lands are generally less resilient, so proportionately less able to accommodate the demands of intensive production systems. As the structural integrity and associated biological processes that maintain agricultural soil quality become compromised, the productive capacity of these soils decreases and an increased risk of soil erosion can occur. One striking example of land degradation, caused by human activity, is desertification – a consequence of the over cultivation, overgrazing and overuse of water. There is also a growing concern that our increasing reliance on intensive farming systems is having an adverse effect on human health. Agrichemical over usage and the agricultural wastes, that are the by-products of our industrial agriculture systems, are finding their way into our atmosphere, waterways and ground water. The discovery of persistent synthetic compound residues in human tissues has revived fears that one consequence of chronic chemical pesticide exposure is a heightened risk of developing a variety of cancers, and or nervous system disorders. Similarly, the concern has been voiced that the use of antibiotics in food animals may select for bacteria resistant to antibiotics used in human health; the fear being that these antibiotic resistant microbes could spread via food to humans so causing human infection. Whether or not these dangers are real is still a question of much heated debate, though it is clear that the low dosages of pesticides and antibiotics used in crop protection and growth promotion remain an unquantified hazard. What is clear is that energy- and resource-intensive food production methods based upon the exploitation of non-renewable energy reserves, heavy machinery, agrichemical intervention and assorted intensive production practices are unsustainable, not least because the land resource upon which the entire system is founded is being degraded incrementally. When coupled with a rising global population and increased per capita consumption, it soon becomes apparent that the ability of the planet to produce enough food and fibre is fast approaching its limits. Such concerns have prompted the search for ways to minimize or replace the use of unsustainable and wasteful production strategies. However, it remains uncertain whether the demand to feed an ever increasing global population can be met solely by intensifying sustainable organic approaches to food production. Novel solutions vested in the developing science of agricultural biotechnology offer the potential of viable and complementary alternatives to conventional farm practices. By integrating beneficial traits directly into crop plants it is already possible to improve disease and drought resistance, promote stress tolerance, and in some instances, achieve superior agricultural productivity and efficiency. Improvements in food quality and handling characteristics can also be introduced using this technology, including such features as superior nutrient content, and increased post-harvest storage and transportation life. More importantly, the application of biotechnology and related technologies has the potential to broaden the scope of crop production beyond conventional food markets. Biotech-based processing technologies, it is hoped, will lead to the development and conversion of crop-based substrates into non-food value-added products. These could include, among others, novel proteins and compounds, market competitive bio-based fuels (e.g., ethanol) and assorted materials (e.g., plastics). The expectation is that these crop development technologies will create new horizons for crop improvement and product development. In this vision of the farming future, scientific research and technology development will create technology/information driven value-added products that will lead to the development of new business systems capable of value creation and value capture at the farm gate. Even so, innovative marketing and branding strategies will still be required to demonstrate the benefits of such technologydriven differentiated product value. For while the change from traditional commodity to value-added production systems will arrive sooner than later, it is unclear what impacts such innovations will have on the farming community – similar hopes for new farm technologies not having materialized in the past. Certainly it appears that agriculture has much to gain by borrowing advances from biotechnology. However, it remains to be seen whether such a radical departure from the accepted norms of conventional farming practice – whatever their environmental impacts – is acceptable to producer and consumer alike.



  • Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests In Orchards: Tools For Integrated Pest Management and Sustainable Agriculture (p.1-24)
  • Lawrence A. Lacey and David I. Shapiro-Ilan
  • Orchard-Atmosphere Exchange Progresses and Sustainable Management (p.25-62)
  • Federica Rossi
  • Bioremediation of Olive Oil Industry Waste: Treatment Methodology and Use (p. 63-76)
  • Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis and Maria Demetriadou    
  • Aromatic Plants (p. 77-90)
  • Nativ Dudai
  • An Overview Of Animal Feed Industry and Dietary Substitution Of Feedtuffs For Farmed Fish (p. 91-107)
  • O.A. Fagbenro, L.C. Nwanna, E.O. Adeparusi, O.T. Adebayo and O.O. Fapohunda
  • Integrated Production and Protection in Vegetable Crops (p. 108-118)
  • Dong-Xin Feng and Zhengguo Li
  • Botanicals: An Alternative in Pest Management (p. 119-148)
  • Abou-Fakhr Hammad
  • Non-Acid Methods of Rock Phosphates Processing and Utilization of Phosphorus (p. 149-167)
  • Ralitsa Ivanova, Darinka Bojinova, Ivan Gruncharov and Rositsa Velkova
  • Edible Mushroom Cultivation-Production of High-Valued Human Food by Utilization of Different Agriculture Waste (p. 168-184)
  • Ivanka Milenkoviû and Milica Ljaljeviû Grbiû
  • The Technology Transfer Strategy of Integrated Pest Management (p. 185-189)
  • O.I. Oladele
  • Sustainable Production of Tomato Upendra (p. 190-216)
  • Sainju and Ramdane Dris
  • Organic Farming – Concepts, Practices and Food Quality (p. 217-232)
  • Siddiqui, Harbir Singh and K. P. Singh
  • Sustainable Nutrient Management in Agricutlure: A Simulation Programme for Calculating Field Level Plant Nutrition Recommendations (p. 233-257)
  • A Hekstra
  • Evaluation of Dairy Sludge as a Grassland Fertilizer in Galicia (NW SPAIN) (p. 258-268)
  • E. López-Mosquera, M.J. Sainz and E. Carral
  • Indigenous Pest Management and the Future of Sustainable Farming Luqman (p. 269-274)
  • Akinbile
  • Behaviour and Yields of the Olive Tree (Olea Europaea) in Rain Fed Arid Area (p. 275-304)
  • Ahmed Trigui
  • Organic Agriculture in Spain: Current Status and Future Trends (p. 305-324)
  • Aguirre



  • Postharvest Physiology and Technology of Cut Flowers and Foliage (p. 325-346)
  • Antonio Ferrante
  • Out-of-Season Raspberry Production in Spain (p. 347-351)
  • M.T. Aguado and A. Flores
  • A Greenhouse Production of Asparagus: Mother Stalk Culture and Year-Round Asparagus Production (p. 352-359)
  •  Pankaj Kumar Bhowmik and Toshiyuki Matsui
  • Hydroponic Technology for Greenhouse Crop (p. 360-378)
  • Alberto Pardossi, Fernando Malorgio, Luca Incrocci and Franco Tognon
  • Influence of Crop Management Decisions on Postharvest Quality of Greenhouse Tomatoe (p. 379-405)
  •  Elhadi M. Yahia, Xiuming Hao and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos
  • Leaching in Greenhouse Cultivation (p. 406-431)
  • Ma Terasa Lao



  • Pre-And Postharvest Technology of Lesser Known Leafy Vegetables of India Pradeep (p. 432-447)
  • Singh Negi
  • Managing Calcium in the Soil-Plant-Fruit System (p. 448-459)
  • Domingos P. F. Almeida
  • Postharvest Physiology of Fruits (p. 460-477)
  • Siddiqui and Bhavana Mishra
  • Postharvest Technology and Handling of Mango (p. 478-512)
  • Elhadi M. Yahia
  • Postharvest Physiology and Technology of Melon (p. 513-523)
  • Zhengguo Li, Guoping Chen, Aidong Li and Lihu Yao
  • Postharvest Physiology and Technology of Tomato (p. 524-540)
  • Zhengguo Li, Guoping Chen, Aidong Li and Lihu Yao
  • The Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening in the Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera) (p. 541-551)
  • F. Abbas
  • Postharvest of Red Bayberry Fruit (p. 552-571)
  • Jianrong Li
  • Seabuckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides Lin.): A New Resource for Food and Health (p. 572-591)
  • A.S.Chauhan, R.S.Ramteke and R.Dris
  • Pre- And Postharvest Technology of Cactus Stems, the Nopal (p. 592-617)
  • Juan Carlos Guevara-Arauza and ElhadiI M. Yahia
  • Quality of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables – Influence of Environment, Crop Physiology and Cultural Practices (p. 618-642)
  • Siddiqui and Bhawana Mishra
  • Postharvest Technology of Food Crops in the Near East and North Africa (Nena) Region (p. 643-664)
  • Elhadi M. Yahia
  • Postharvest Losses in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in the Developing Countries A. (p. 665-673)
  • Hussein
  • Reducing Quality Loss in Foods (p.674-695)
  • O. Adegoke and K.O. Falade
  • Physiological and Biochemical Changes of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys Edulis) Shoot in Relation to Shelf-Life and Quality Loss During Storage (p. 696-703)
  • Pankaj Kumar Bhowmik and Toshiyuki Matsui
  • Postharvest Biology and Handling of Litchi Fruit (p. 704-721)
  • Yueming Jiang, Lihu Yao and Amon Lichter
  • Non-Destructive Detection of Horticultural Quality During Storage (p. 722-724)
  • Hidekazu Ito
  • Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Green Asparagus (p. 725-731)
  • Pankaj Kumar Bhowmik and Toshiyuki Matsui
  • Quality Dynamics in the Processing of Underutilized Legumes and Oilseeds (p. 732-746)
  • Victor N. Enujiugha
  • Resh-Cut Leafy Vegetables: Handling and Processing (p. 747-777)
  • Maria E. Pirovani, Daniel R. Güemes and Andrea M. Piagentini
  • Sian Lady Beetle (Harmonia Axyridis) and Wine Quality (p. 778-784)
  • Gary J. Pickering and Y. (James) Lin
  • Origin and Remediation of Asian Lady Beetle (Harmonia Axyridis) Taint in Wine (p. 785-794)
  • Gary J. Pickering, Y. (James) Lin and Kevin Ker
  • Retention of Antioxidant Capacity in Fresh, Stored and Processed Vegetables (p. 795-804)
  • Ninfali, G. Mea, E. Biagotti , S. Buresti and M. Bacchiocca



  • Fungi as Causative Agents of  Diseases of Vegetables and Fruits (p. 805-824)
  • Sonja Duletiû-Lauševiû, Jelena Vukojeviû and Marina Sokoviû
  • 48- Pathogenic Fungi of Vegetables and Rosaceae Fruits (p. 825-851)
  • Jelena Vukojeviû, Sonja Duletiû-Lauševiû and Jasmina Glamoýlija
  • Disorders and Diseases of Aapples Grown in Scandinavia (p. 852-867)
  • Ramdane Dris
  • Colletotrichum Gloesporioides; An Example of an Important Postharvest Pathogen of Subtropical Fruits (p. 868-881)
  • Gina M. Sanders and L. Korsten
  • Effects of Powdery Mildew on Fruit Quality (p. 882-891)
  • Wendy McFadden-Smith and Gary Pickering
  • Phytoplasmas Associated with Strawberry Phyllody, Pear Decline and Apricot Chlorotic Leaf Roll Diseases (p. 892-902)
  • Maria Pastore and Assunta Bertaccini
  • Chilling Injury in Mango (Mangifera Indica) Fruit (p. 903-924)
  • Dinora M. Leon, Javier De La Cruz, Hugo S. Garcia and Miguel A. Gomez-Lim
  • Current and Future Control Strategies for Major Arthopod Pests and Fungal Diseases of Red Raspberry (Rubus Idaeus) in Europe (p. 925-950)
  • Stuart C. Gordon, Brian Williamson and Julie Graham
  • Potential Utilization of Monoterpenoids and Essential Oil Components in Postharvest Disease Control of Fruits (p. 951-966)
  • Ting Zhou and Rong Tsao
  • Radio Frequiency Treatments for Insect Control in Fruits and Nuts – Principles and Applications (p. 967-990)
  • Juming Tang and Shaojin Wang
  • Biology and Control of the Novel Grapevine Pest – The Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Harmonia Axyridis (p. 991-997)
  • Kevin W. Ker and Gary J. Pickering
  • Potassium in Pest and Disease Management of Horticultural Crops (p. 998-1013)
  • P. Parvatha Reddy, T. N. Shivananda, R. Siddaramappa and R. Dris



  • 5Dry Pea Production and Breeding (p. 1014-1024)
  • Kevin McPhee
  • Problems and Prospects of Rose Breeding (p. 1025-1037)
  • Tejaswini, M.V. Dhananjaya and K. Bhanuprakash
  • One Team, Pcmv and One Approack, in Vitro Biotechnology (p. 1038-1067)
  • J. Ochatt, C. Delaitre, E. Lionneton, O. Huchette, E. M. Patat-Ochatt and R. Kahane
  • Biotechnology Applications in Crops (p. 1068-1086)
  • Julia Weiss, Lorenzo Burgos and Marcos Egea Gutiérrez-Cortines
  • Biotechnology and Crop Improvement (p. 1087-1091)
  • Stephen Gaya Agong
  • Food Quality Improvement Through Biotechnology (p. 1092-1112)
  • Simona Baima
  • Biotechnology Application in Crops Molecular Biology of the Postharvest Changes in Green Asparagus (p. 1113-1127)
  • Pankaj Kumar Bhowmik and Toshiyuki Matsui
  • The Application of Molecular Markers in Plant Biotechnology for Crop Improvement (p. 1128-1148)
  • Kahraman Kepenek and Pervin Basaran
  • Genetic Engineering to Modify the Aroma of Fruits and Flowers (p. 1149-1157)
  • Efraim Lewinsohn
  • Biotechnological Approach to Improve Quality Traits of Melon (p. 1158-1169)
  • Zhengguo Li, Aidong Li, Guoping Chen and Lihu Yao
  • Biotechnology Approach to Improve Quality Traits of Tomato (p. 1170-1185)
  • Zhengguo Li, Guoping Chen, Aidong Li and Lihu Yao
  • Genetic Transformation of Strawberry (p. 1186-1195)
  • A. Mercado, M. Cordero De Mesa, S. Jimenez-Bérmúdez, M. A. Quesada and F. Pliego-Alfaro     
  • Agricultural Needs in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Challenges of Agricultural Biotechnology (p. 1196-1205)
  • Chris A. Shisanya
  • Physiological Approaches to Improving Plant Salt Tolerance (p. 1206-1227)
  • Yasin Ashraf, M. Ashraf and G. Sarwar
  • Molecular Genetic Analysis of Wound-Induced Ethylene Synthesis During Storage of Moso Bamboo Shoot (p. 1228-1237)
  • Pankaj Kumar Bhowmik and Toshiyuki Matsui
  • Leaf Senescence and Related Processes (p. 1238-1253)
  • Juan J. Guiamét and Virginia M. C. Luquez
  • Plant Protection by Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) – Chances and Potential Risks (p. 1254-1275)
  • Martin Heil
  • Plant Tolerance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses Through Modern Genetic Engineering Techniques (p. 1276-1299)
  • Amer Jamil, Farqooq Anwar and M. Ashraf
  • Architectural Types in Apple (MalusDomestica Borkh.) (p. 1300-1313)
  • Pierre-Eric Lauri and François Laurens
  • Aluminum Toxicity Syndrome and Tolerance Mechanism of Crop Plants in Acid Soils (p. 1314-1330)
  • Hideaki Matsumoto, Hiroki Osawa and Sung Ju Ahn
  • Molecular Approach for Citrus Flavonoids and Limonoids Biosynthesis Takaya (p. 1331-1342)
  • Moriguchi, Masayuki Kita, Shin Hasegawa and Mitsuo Omura
  • Genetic Control of Ethylene Biosynthesis, Perception and Signal Transduction Related to Flower Senescence in Ornamentals (p. 1343-1356)
  • Renate Müller and Bjarne M. Stummann


Number of chapters: 5
Length of the book: 1362 pages
Book size: A4
Book Weight: 4.515 kg
Photos: Color
Book cover: Hard cover

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